In scientific writing, IMRaD  (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) refers to a common organization structure. IMRAD is the most prominent norm for the structure of a scientific journal article of the original research type.


Original research articles are typically structured in this basic order:[1] [2]

  • Introduction – Why was the study undertaken? What was the research question, the tested hypothesis or the purpose of the research?
  • Methods – When, where, and how was the study done? What materials were used or who was included in the study groups (patients, etc.)?
  • Results – What answer was found to the research question; what did the study find? Was the tested hypothesis true?
  • Discussion – What might the answer imply and why does it matter? How does it fit in with what other researchers have found? What are the perspectives for future research?